5G Mobile Networks


5G technologies are a growing trend in today’s world, which has gained worldwide popularity and is subjected to equal criticism. The 5g network works in the radio frequency of the visible spectrum, and the sources of this radiation are below the human exposure limits.

5G refers to the 5th generation technology, which is marked as an exceptional revolution from the 2G, 3G, and 4G networks. These networks produce electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency, which are used in transmitting the information. According to recent research, mobile phones are an extensive mode of communication that poses serious health effects on humans and animals. However, the standard for these is set by the respective countries, based on the radiation level and technology use.

5th generation mobile technologies

Mobiles, tablets, and others use wireless technologies, which are the basic mood of communication in everyday life. It is also the mode for information transfer from one device to another, which is used in everyday life.

The introduction of the 5G technologies has evolved the era of mobile internet expanding areas like m-Health, m-learning, and mobile money. Moreover, according to ITM 2020, it has opened a new era for self-driving cars, intelligent systems, 3D video and audio networks, and other remote control devices which also work on augmented reality.

5th generation

Effect on human health

Although the popularity of mobile technologies has grown over the years, the concerns for which have also risen over time. It could cause potential health risks as they work in the radio frequency and other ranges which are not advisable to humans.

The 3g, 4g, and 5G networks produce radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum, which are the primary way to transmit information from one device to another. Although the emf fields have been around every device since the birth of the universe, it is essential to note that humans can be harmful when subjected to certain radiation levels. For instance, the radio frequency can range from 10 to 300 GHz, and when it reaches the maximum stage, it can cause a potential health hazard to people.

However, other groups of scientists argue that despite the extensive studies conducted on radio frequencies’ effect for decades, no harmful impacts or health risks are recorded in humans. They also state the lack of evidence of the harmful effects of emf on people’s health.

ITUs’ contribution to regulating exposure

The ITUs do not set the maximum levels of exposure in public and private places but are taken care of by the competent bodies of the unit. Sovereign countries also set their standards for emf released from devices. However, the two central bodies that govern the rules are:

  • The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
  • The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)

We are constantly exposed to electromagnetic radiation, which comes from a variety of sources, including mobile phones, television and radio broadcasts, and natural sources like sunlight. The most recent wireless smartphone technology, known as 5G, will be widely used for the first time in 2019. The high waves travel shorter distances through urban spaces, so 5G networks require more transmitter masts than previous technologies, positioned closer to ground level.

Main distinctions between 5G and other technologies

The progression of communications standards is represented by 5G. 5G will use higher frequencies up to some tens of GHz and around 3.5 GHz to offer improved performance. While body scanners and point-to-point radio communications are two other common uses of the higher frequencies outside of mobile phone networks, they are new to mobile networks.

5G uses higher frequency waves than earlier mobile networks, allowing more devices to have access to the internet at the same time and at faster speeds. 5G networks will make use of more base stations and connected items at these higher frequencies. Beam-forming antennas will also be used in 5G to more effectively guide signals towards the device being used as opposed to existing base station antennas, which spread the signal out in all directions.

Level of exposure

The current 3.5 GHz emission from 5G infrastructures is comparable to the 2.4 GHz exposure from current cell phone base stations. With the utilization of various rays from 5G antennas, radiation may vary depending on the users’ locations and usage. Given that 5G technology is still in its early stages of implementation, it is still unknown how much radiofrequency field exposure will alter.

5G Mobile Networks

Actions of WHO on 5G

As the new system is implemented and as more information about public health becomes available, WHO will assess the scientific evidence pertaining to potential health effects from exposure to 5G. The International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project was started by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1996. The project studies the effects of contact with magnetic and electrical fields between 0 and 300 GHz on human health and provides national authorities with EMF radiation safety advice.

WHO supports more investigation into the potential long-term health effects of all facets of mobile communications. Priorities for related research are determined and promoted by the organization. In order to improve understanding of health and mobile communications, it also creates resources for the general public and encourages discussion among experts, scientists, authorities, governments, and the general public.

International exposure regulations

Guidelines for electromagnetic field exposure are produced by two international organizations. Currently, several nations follow the recommendations made by:

  • The Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection International Commission,
  • Through the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

These rules do not depend on any particular technology. They include the radio frequencies being discussed for 5G and extend up to 300 GHz.