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A Walkthrough on 5G Radiofrequency Networks

5G Radiofrequency

The 5th generation technology, which aids in enhancing performance speed and increasing user experience, is called the 5G radiofrequency network. The 3GPP, or this Generation Partnership Project, is the standard that governs mobile telephony. They have seven different telecommunication associations with different associations and organizations. Their work is organized into three different streams:

  • Radio Access Networks
  • Core network and terminals
  • Services and systems aspect

This project was first started in December 1998 to develop the specification of 3g mobile phone systems based on the technology and structure of the 2G systems, to which cellphone users quickly got adapted.


Latest specifications of 3GPP

With its headquarters in Francs, they are responsible for drafting all the rules, regulations, and definitions of the 5g networks. 5G NR, also called New Raio, is one of their newest access technologies which is developed by different mobile networks. This network is designed to be the interface of all 5G networks worldwide. The technical details behind it are provided in 38 different specifications.

The 5G NR works in two different ranges of frequencies:

  • FR1 or Frequency Range1, which includes the sub-6 Hz of the frequency bands
  • FR2 or frequency range two, which includes the frequency banks in the mmWave range of 24-100 GHz

Countries follow different ranges for radio frequency networks, and if an area or device is above the limit, it can e banned. The FCC also allocated the 7GHz channelized spectrum to operate between 57 and 64 GHz, allowing users to create applications and efficiently utilize this frequency. Wifi is one of the most common examples.

Wifi has allowed various companies to create wireless router options, networks, and hubs. After the 5G millimeter wave began in 2019, the IEEE redefined it as WiGig. The WiGig is also the official definition for 60GHz frequencies, which carry information from one device to another and are compatible with all the existing wifi networks. All electronic appliances, like wireless TV streaming and toasters, use this frequency to run their mechanisms at high speeds.


Country Specifications

As mentioned above, the 5G radiofrequency range differs from one country to another. Some countries also use RF bands to help them set their network needs and standards. Here are the 5G frequency banks of some countries:

Europe: 24.25-27.5 for all the commercial deployments from 2020

China: 24.25 – 27.5 GHz for all the studies and research conducted on devices

Japan: 27.5-28.8 for all the trials planned in 2017 and deployed in 2020.

Korea: 26.5-29.5 GHz for all the trials planned in 2018 and the commercial deployments in 2019.

USA: 24.25 -28.35 GHz along with 37 to 40 GHz and 64-71 GHz for all the pre-commercial deployments in 2018.

India: 24.5 to 29.5 GHz

Harmful Health Effects Of Radiation Exposure

Radiation Exposure

Radiation is the discharge of energy as moving subatomic particles or electromagnetic waves. Natural radiation is produced by a variety of radioactive substances that are present in the soil, water, air, and the human body. People regularly consume and breathe in radiation through their food, water, and environment. Radiation exposure can be external or internal, such as inhalation, ingestion, or assimilation via a polluted wound, or it can be a combination of both external and internal.

affect health

How does radiation affect health?

Depending on how much radiation is exposed, excessive radiation can harm biological tissues and organs. The following elements affect the potential damage’s magnitude:

  • the radiation’s kind
  • the reactivity of the organs and tissues that are impacted
  • the way and duration of exposure
  • the relevant radioactive isotopes
  • features of the exposed person including gender, age, and the exposed condition.

The radiation dose affects the likelihood of experiencing negative health impacts. The chance of negative consequences increases with the dose. The risk is significantly reduced if the dose of radiation is minimal or the delivery is prolonged since the body will heal any damaged cells and molecules.

Children at high risk

Radiation exposure increases the risk of harmful health outcomes in children. Youngsters have more rapidly dividing cells and growing tissues, and because they possess long and healthy lives ahead of them, malignancies have more time to develop. Children should take precautions as directed and seek medical assistance as soon as it is safe to do so following a radiation emergency, according to emergency personnel.

Immediate radiation health effects

Radiation can cause acute adverse effects like vomiting and nausea skin irritation, loss of hair, chemical burns, acute radiation syndrome, and even death at very high doses. It can also disrupt the working of tissues and organs. To lessen their exposure risk in the event of a radiation disaster, people should heed instructions from authorities and adhere to immediate protective measures.

First responders and employees of the impacted facility (such as those at a nuclear power plant) are more likely to be exposed to radiation doses that are high enough to have acute effects in the event of a radioactive or nuclear emergency. However, it is unlikely that the general public will be exposed to levels high enough to have the effects listed above.

Ways to shield yourself from the impacted area

Lock in, focus in and obey orders are the three main rules to follow. Always heed safety advice from your local or national authorities, and stay in contact to get the most recent information. Stay inside if you’ve been told to do so since the ceilings and walls can shield you from radioactive contamination outside. Stay indoors, close windows, switch off vents (heaters or air conditioners), and if at all practicable, remain in a room without windows and exterior doors.

Everything You Should Know About 5G Networks

5G Networks

One of the most booming terms in today’s technological world is 5G networks. 5G stands for 5th generation mobile networks with the aim to connect the world globally using wireless systems. It is one of the essential technologies which is required to connect objects and other devices in this digitized world. The technology is primarily designed to deliver high-speed data in low latency with enhanced availability and user experience. These enhanced features help connect to new industries.

The technologies that makeup 5G

It is based on Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing technology, which includes modulating the data and signal across different platforms to reduce interference. It also makes use of air interference with the help of OFDM principles. Like the 4G and LTE networks, it also works on certain mobile networking principles, which helps deliver much higher scalability and flexibility.

Since the technology can operate in both lower and higher bands, it will expand the usage of spectrum resources from the 3GHz band to the 5Ghz band. This technology not only delivers better and faster mobile services compared to 4G and LTE but also helps in critical communication areas like war zones and its implementation with IoT. This system can be implemented using G5 Nr air interference techniques and other TDD subframe design systems.

5g network

How will 5G affect the global economy?

Currently, the 5G network has a global worth of $13.1 trillion, and almost 22 million jobs have been created since the technology’s introduction. However, over the next 15 years, it is expected to reach the billion mark, supporting a more comprehensive range of industries to conquer, which will pose a much more excellent way to impact and conquer the 4G network industries.

The increase in demand and popularity of the 5G networks is also going to help impact more excellent generations, whose requirements are expanding beyond the traditional players in mobile networking and security. However, since its introduction, it has also caused a wave of rumors about its harmful effect on our bodies. Although there are many emerging technologies in the networking sector, only time will decide about the 5G effect on the economy, health, and feasibility of the people.

The use of 5g networks

In broad terms, 5G networks are used in different sectors, which include connected services like mission-critical communications, mobile broadband, IoT, and others. However, the definition of 5g is based on forward compatibility and flexibility to support the necessary systems. Some of the areas of 5G uses are:

  • Enhanced mobile broadband: This technology can be immersed in concepts like AR and VR with more uniform rates and lower latencies.
  • Mission critical communications: 5G communications are necessary for ultra-reliable and low latency links, which have the critical infrastructure and are used for medical purposes.
  • Massive IoT: 5G technologies can also connect a massive amount of embedded sensors, which can be used in mobility, power, and other low-cost connectivity solutions.

Drawbacks of implementing 5G network

5G network

In today’s technologically advanced world, the majority of cell phones are getting the fifth generation or 5G of mobile technology, which will provide high-speed net and wireless signals to improve customer satisfaction and make life simpler. Since its release, nevertheless, worries concerning 5 G systems have appeared online. As the global telecom sector prepares for 5G technology, analysts claim that despite having numerous benefits, 5G also has a number of negative issues that call for careful consideration by both business executives and governments throughout the world. Some of its disadvantages are:

5G technology

Insufficient Coverage

Although 5G technology is said to have the top speed, one of its restrictions is that it is now only available in a small number of locations worldwide that have 5G towers. The launch and implementation of 5G will take years because the testing, trialing, and installation of 5G towers is a demanding and expensive procedure, even though international businesses and governments are working to ensure that all cities have 5G coverage.

Slow upload rates

Despite having the potential for faster download speeds, experts predict that 5G technology will have a slower upload speed than 4G and 4G LTE. This might be because several 5G experiments were conducted on low-band networks. Another problem with 5G technology is this.

Battery damage

Another drawback of 5G networks is that it impairs cellular devices by shortening their lifespan and exhausting their batteries. Only a small number of manufacturers have so far released 5G-compatible mobile devices. While efforts are being made to produce 5G gadgets, experts say the capability is showing to be a problem for 4G devices because it frequently results in battery damage.

Risk to Cybersecurity

Another negative aspect of 5G networks is that it makes cybersecurity more vulnerable to attack. Additionally, the loss of encryption during connection also makes 5G-enabled devices a more accessible risk for hacks, cyberattacks, and data breaches. An increased chance of network misconfiguration, an expanded attack surface for hostile actors, and potential effects on other network activities owing to resource sharing are some of the security issues.

frequency Bands

The complexity of frequency Bands

Over Fifty frequency bands below 3.6 GHz make up the current LTE infrastructure. The sub-6 GHz range is one of the bandwidth choices for early 5G deployment. The first wave of 5G technology will employ unlicensed airwaves operating below 6 GHz. A series of frequency bands in the sub-6 GHz range and millimeter waves of the RF spectrum make up the 5G NR (New Radio standard for 5G networks). In comparison to the low-frequency range, millimeter wave hardware design is substantially more complicated. It must support many bands in order to guarantee device interoperability across borders and regions. More frequency bands being added makes the device more complex.

The Effect of 5G Mobile Networks on Health

5G Mobile Networks

5G technologies are a growing trend in today’s world, which has gained worldwide popularity and is subjected to equal criticism. The 5g network works in the radio frequency of the visible spectrum, and the sources of this radiation are below the human exposure limits.

5G refers to the 5th generation technology, which is marked as an exceptional revolution from the 2G, 3G, and 4G networks. These networks produce electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency, which are used in transmitting the information. According to recent research, mobile phones are an extensive mode of communication that poses serious health effects on humans and animals. However, the standard for these is set by the respective countries, based on the radiation level and technology use.

5th generation mobile technologies

Mobiles, tablets, and others use wireless technologies, which are the basic mood of communication in everyday life. It is also the mode for information transfer from one device to another, which is used in everyday life.

The introduction of the 5G technologies has evolved the era of mobile internet expanding areas like m-Health, m-learning, and mobile money. Moreover, according to ITM 2020, it has opened a new era for self-driving cars, intelligent systems, 3D video and audio networks, and other remote control devices which also work on augmented reality.

5th generation

Effect on human health

Although the popularity of mobile technologies has grown over the years, the concerns for which have also risen over time. It could cause potential health risks as they work in the radio frequency and other ranges which are not advisable to humans.

The 3g, 4g, and 5G networks produce radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum, which are the primary way to transmit information from one device to another. Although the emf fields have been around every device since the birth of the universe, it is essential to note that humans can be harmful when subjected to certain radiation levels. For instance, the radio frequency can range from 10 to 300 GHz, and when it reaches the maximum stage, it can cause a potential health hazard to people.

However, other groups of scientists argue that despite the extensive studies conducted on radio frequencies’ effect for decades, no harmful impacts or health risks are recorded in humans. They also state the lack of evidence of the harmful effects of emf on people’s health.

ITUs’ contribution to regulating exposure

The ITUs do not set the maximum levels of exposure in public and private places but are taken care of by the competent bodies of the unit. Sovereign countries also set their standards for emf released from devices. However, the two central bodies that govern the rules are:

  • The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
  • The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)

Building Sustainable 5G Networks

5G Networks

The urgency to curb the effects of global warming has never been more apparent. Over the years, there has been a rise of at least 2.7 degrees Celsius in the earth’s temperature, which has significantly impacted the social, economic, and other catastrophic social impacts. The ITC sector plays a significant role in building sustainable choices in diminishing the effects of global warming. Although they account for only 1.4% of global gas emissions, they can reduce the overall emissions by 15% by 2030. They can also indirectly support another 35% by promoting other sustainable businesses and people.

The latest 5G cellular technology holds immense potential in breaking the historic cycle usage of coal, petroleum, and natural gas, increasing with each generation. In this article, we will discuss Ericsson’s four pillars which increase the energy network performance. They are:

Modernizing the network

One of the best ways to save energy and decrease the damage caused by harmful radio frequency is to modernize the equipment that induces the source. In addition, upgrading the equipment will help decrease the physical footprints, which can significantly further save the energy budget invested in the device and the technology needed to improve the fifth-generation network.

Building 5G technology with precision

One of the best ways to enhance the use of technology with precision is to optimize the network performance by using energy-efficient methods. This not only helps in controlling the costs of manufacturing but will also help in reducing carbon footprints. In addition, the automation process will also help reduce deployment costs, thereby reducing the load on the environment and balancing resources.

Activating the energy-saving software

Energy-saving equipment is the key to managing the efficient use of 5G networks. For instance, Vodafone reduced its energy consumption in Portugal but still managed to meet all the performance requirements by putting the networks that received low traffic to sleep. Therefore, the MIMO sleep mode optimization can be applied using the Ericsson principle to this rule. Furthermore, machine learning algorithms can also be used to train the four different weeks of traffic data and rectify and identify their patterns. This technology is already under implementation in many IoT projects like smart cities, smart homes, etc.

energy-saving software

Operating site infrastructure intelligently

The full energy-saving potential of a 5G network can be achieved by site infrastructure equipment for passive elements to control things like the antenna, climate, and other security systems. Using the Ai infrastructure can be managed efficiently, which also helps reduce maintenance visits. By applying intelligent site management strategies, people can bring the data together and visualize it by providing access anywhere. This data can be utilized further as a roadmap for all future expansions and a trademark for long-term resource planning.

The 5G Revolution: How will it affect the Environment?

5G Revolution

During the Covid-19 pandemic, people learned a valuable lesson that they could not stay without smartphones and gadgets. The internet remained a crucial aspect of their lives during this time, from buying groceries to watching new movies, telehealth, and medical services. Everything was available on the internet. However, this experience of the people diversified when the countries quickly moved to the latest generation of today’s technology – the 5G technology.

promise of 5G

The mere promise of 5G

For every ten years, the world has consistently faced a drastic technological shift, which changes yearly. From 1G in the 1980s to 5G, which began its deployment in 2019, the world has seen significant improvement. The fifth-generation technology provides a reliable communication mode and enhanced broadband solutions for all cell phones and digital gadgets. Since it has low latency (delay in the communication), it provides more capacity due to the use of fewer frequencies in the spectrum. This technology feature spread like wildfire and made it possible to spread the technology worldwide. It can be applied almost anywhere, from intelligent cars to sensors and machine-to-machine communications.

How can 5G help the Environment?

The invention of 5G technology is a boon to protect and preserve the Environment. It is also one of the main points of attraction for delivering intelligent cities using IoT technologies. In addition to this, some of the other benefits include:

  • Reducing water pollution
  • Diminishing the number of greenhouse gases
  • Minimizing the amount of sewage water
  • Protecting wildlife
  • Understand the weather
  • Enhancing waste reduction, and many more

Potential negative impacts on the Environment

Despite the benefits of the 5G technologies, certain demerits are due to radiation and other such factors, which will harm humans and animals. In addition to this, the manufacture of this technology means building new infrastructure with a multitude of different devices, which leads to the following negative impacts:

  • Further energy consumption and emission: According to statistics, information and communication technology accounts for almost four percent of global warming due to carbon emissions and radiation from electronic devices.
  • Life cycle impacts: This talks about the post-carbon economy, which does not include power generation and gas, whose energy consumption increases by 9 percent yearly.
  • E-waste: When consumers worldwide start consuming networks from 5G phones, it will increase the carbon footprint and enhance the E-waste to an enormous amount which can cause many global problems to the neighborhood and the Environment.

5G help

Sustainable 5G methods

Some strategies can be implied to lessen harmful environmental impacts and make the technology more sustainable. Doing so will not only protect the Environment, but it will also help in increasing the capability of the network Here are some of them:

  • Decarbonization
  • Efficient cooling methods
  • Biodegradable sensors
  • Recycling toxic materials
  • Network sharing; and many more

Radiation Risks of Radiofrequencies


Over the years, radiation exposure has raised a serious threat to health hazards, raising concerns of the public, policymakers, and certain health researchers. World War II marked the beginning of the radar war, with human exposure to all the radiations radio frequencies, which has only substantially grown over time. The recent large-scale carcinogen studies on rodents have also proved their exposure to the RFR. The study also proved the presence of malignant gliomas and frequent chromosomal damage.

Many experimental studies have also proven that when cell phones and radiation from other devices are exposed to the RFR rays, they cause local brain damage in children. Also, men who keep their cell phones in their pockets cause a lower sperm count and significantly low sperm mortality.


According to reports of 1998, the ICNIRP has no solid evidence on the causes and effects of adverse biological conditions caused by radiations from radio frequencies. However, in contrast to these reports, in 2011, the IARC mentioned that the radiation might have possible human carcinogens in their system.


Many case-control studies on exposure to cell phones, particularly the exposure to electromagnetic waves from the cell phone, caused glioma and critical cases of acoustic neuroma. In addition, in epidemiological studies, many cases have expressed concerns about developing skin and other diseases due to constant exposure to radiation from cell phones and other emitting devices.

Reproduction and children

Due to radio frequency exposure, many of them are constantly exposed to developing infertility in young adults. Also, based on many case studies conducted on this topic, RDR exposure is most problematic to the pediatric population. The constant addiction to cell phones, tablets, and other electronic devices is also a part of the significant problem of the risks caused due to radiofrequency radiation.

In the last three years, over 32 countries and governmental bodies have issued various policies and other health recommendations concerning exposure to RFR. The US has a limit of exposure from 81 to 83, while the Public schools have an exposure of 84. The application of Wi-fi has also been removed in some US schools, and any building with an RDR greater than 84 will be banned from entering the building or bringing their cell phones and other electronic devices.

Many government institutions have also started monetizing data to analyze the potential links between cancer and wireless technologies. Unfortunately, most of these effects jot down the harmful radiofrequency radiation released by cell phones and other gadgets. Hence, the necessary precautions and cautionary measures should always be taken to protect oneself against such harmful radiation. The IARC also works constantly to create new groups to categorize and include scientific findings in their research and diminish the effects of RFR as much as possible.

Hazards Associated with Radio-Frequency Radiation from Cell Phones

Radio-Frequency Radiation

Our generation is heavily reliant on technology. Cell phones and other wireless devices are widely used worldwide, whether for personal or professional purposes, and contact with radio-frequency radiation (RFR) is commonplace, even in public areas. This article discusses the most on health hazards associated with RFR exposure, which falls within the non-ionizing range of frequency. While the impacts on human health are the main subject of this article, there is evidence that RFR may have physiological or morphological consequences on bees, plants, and trees as well.

Biological impacts

Biological impacts

RF radiation exposure can have biological impacts. The term “thermal” impacts are frequently used to describe health impacts that come from heating tissue with RF energy. Because RF can heat biological tissue quickly, it has long been known that radiation to very high amounts of RF can be detrimental. A high enough dose of RF radiation has a thermal impact, which means it increases body temperature. There are worries that the RF radiation that mobile phones emit, even at low rates, could lead to migraines or aches.

High RF exposure levels have the potential to heat biological tissue and raise body temperature. The body’s inadequacy to handle or remove the extra heat that can be produced by high RF exposure in humans could result in tissue damage. Due to the relative dearth of accessible blood flow to disperse the extra heat load, the testicles and the eyes are two body parts that are particularly susceptible to RF heating.

Electromagnetic interference

Some medical devices, such as implantable defibrillators, pacemakers, and specific hearing aids, may experience interference if mobiles are used in close proximity to them. For 3G cellphones and newer technology, the risk is significantly decreased. Additionally, there is a chance that mobile phone signals could interfere with the electronics of an airplane. Using mechanisms that limit the phone’s output power, some nations have legalized the use of mobile phones while flying.

Preventive measures

Research has largely focused on the potential impacts of cell phone exposure because access to the radiofrequency (RF) radiated by these devices is typically more than a thousand times higher than that from base stations, and any negative effects are more likely to be caused by handsets. To minimize radio frequency exposure close to your body:

  • Purchase a hands-free earpiece or headset that is directly compatible with your phone.
  • Make more use of the speakerphone.
  • Some pacemakers used to have their operation hampered by RF. Contact your healthcare practitioner if you possess a pacemaker and are worried about how using a cell phone can harm it.
  • To reduce exposure to radio frequencies, keep your mobile phone at least three feet far from your bed.
  • If you don’t use the alarm function on your phone, turn it off before bed. Switch on Airplane Mode on your phone.

What is 5G? What are the Benefits of 5G?

Benefits of 5G

The term 5G is not alien anymore. From tech geeks to laypeople, everyone is aware of the term 5G. It is the beginning of a unique path to innovation that has the capability to brighten our technological future. In this article, let us understand what exactly is 5G technology and learn the benefits of the same.

What exactly is 5G?

5G is the fifth generation of mobile technology, the latest in mobile networks. When compared to 1g, 2g, 3g, and 4g networks, 5g has the following benefits:

  • It offers a high-peak data solution
  • High-speed internet
  • Expected reliability
  • Low latency
  • Seamless user experience
  • Empowers virtual connectivity


The technology is invested by keeping the future in mind to run highly connected machines, gadgets, and other objects. It is not just limited to conveying messages from one machine to another. The 5g network can also open many other options, including various use cases to implement technologies like the Internet of Things and others.

Specific portable environments can also be expanded into new domains with the help of the fast-speed, latent network. The 5g technology and network communication will also benefit every industry, making it safer and more transparent to health care, farming, and other digitized services.

What are the benefits of 5g networks?

As explained above, the 5g network is fast, but apart from that, it has several other applications which help in application to different fields.

Increased network capacity

Giving a particular community with a robust network like 5g holds distinctive advantages. For example, an enormous gathering of individuals utilizing phones will not hamper or slow anyone’s connections in the room, which means along with low latency, it also offers extended access.

Low latency

Latency refers to the response time of the individual. It is considered one of the significant advantages of and the biggest factor in shifting to this network. Since commercial applications are quiet and require a drastic response time, having a good speed is of utmost importance for such networks. Hence, the miracle of 5g networks works like magic here, which is generally applied to healthcare and emergency services.

flexibility and readability

Improved flexibility and readability

The low latency offered by the 5g networks will help create greater bandwidth to accommodate and process higher amounts of data. This means there are no connectivity hassles, no call dropping, and a new network area of 5 g services which is also planning to be applied to connected and intelligent cars.

Faster speed

Lastly, the most apparent benefit of the network is its speed. It offers the highest speed of 130mbps, which is four times more when compared to 4 g networks. There can also be a gradual increase in the network speed, which means the connectivity can also increase over time.